Annotated Bib: “1,000 Ideas for Graffiti and Street Art”

Campos, Cristian. 1,000 Ideas for Graffiti and Street Art : [Murals, Tags, and More from Artists around the World]. Rockport Publishers, 2010. EBSCOhost,

Cristian Campos’ work “1000 Ideas for Graffiti and Street Art” primarily features art works from urban centers decorating their streets around the world. Although this piece may have a heavier focus on entertainment rather than being centered around an argument, Campos provides important insight on the distinctions between street art, graffiti, vandalism, and the evolving societal perspective on the legitimacy of urban art. As graffiti has expanded into an art form with an incredibly low entry barrier, allowing even juvenile tag artists to spread their message, phrase, or logo across urban surfaces, so have our standards for evaluating where the line is drawn between vandalism and street murals. While street artists continue to hone and push the limits of their craft, the general public has begun to integrate these genre defining pieces into our own idea of what makes up traditional/official art; arguably to the disdain of traditional graffiti artists. The integration of urban art, previously an untamed form of expression now popularized, to the general construct of official art validates it as a legitimate genre. This idea is vital to my argument, as urban spaces being decorated with street art are now seen as vibrant, welcoming decorations rather than menacing tags. The addition of street murals to a neighborhood increases the positive impression of the space; decreasing crime correlated within the area.

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Annotated Bib: “Using Design To Reduce Crime”

Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie H, et al. “Neighborhood Crime-Related Safety and Its Relation to Children’s Physical Activity.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 92, no. 3, June 2015, pp. 472-489. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s11524-015-9949-0.

Stephanie Kneeshaw-Price details a concept referred to as Crime Prevention through Environmental Design which focuses on what makes criminal behavior more prevalent within a defined space rather than the catching of these crimes. CPTED references a “crime triangle” which expands upon the necessary components that make up and affect a crime; location, victim, and offender. In theory by removing one of these aspects crime prevention then becomes much more feasible. Most importantly however, Kneeshaw goes on to expand on the idea of Territorial Reinforcement, and it’s role within crime prevention. When a space is utilized by legitimate users and cared for, nuisance behavior becomes much more obvious within the space due to increased monitoring. Damaged property and trash negatively affects regular, positive, users and leads to a slow degradation of the area allowing it to become susceptible to crime. Street art becomes applicable within this theory, as murals create an arguably friendlier environment. Art work rather than graffiti tags benefits a community by establishing a more legitimate, socially approved method of decoration. Murals contribute by not only eliminating the wall space for potential taggers, but by also creating a sense of community for regular viewers within the area, essentially branding the space with art.

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Annotated Bib: “Art Crimes: The Governance of Hip Hop Graffiti.”

Lombard, Kara-Jane. “Art Crimes: The Governance of Hip Hop Graffiti.” Journal for Cultural Research, vol. 17, no. 3, Sept. 2013, p. 255. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14797585.2012.752160.

Kara-Jane Lombard elaborates on the ever shifting perspective and integration of hip hop culture and graffiti within the world and how the governance of these art crimes have changed to arguably begin to support the once frowned upon art form. Out lining the genesis of graffiti culture, it’s involvement with hip hop through the 1970s and 1980s, and leading into our modern perspective on the art form; Lombard details the different ways graffiti has been dealt with as a crime. Violent law enforcement within the United States compared with policy shifts attempting to allow for the legitimacy of the art form within places such as Wales contrast the surrounding controversy incredibly well. The government approval of legal art projects allows for graffiti artists to be granted citizenship as an alternative strategy to graffiti control, while simultaneously fighting illegal vandalism work by taking up public wall space and encouraging artists to provide for the general public with their art rather than fight it with more minor crimes.

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Digital Atlanta Collaborative Annotated Bib

Page, M., Hurley, H., Collins, B., Glover, J. B., Bryant, R., Clark, E., Davis, M., Gue, R., Melton, S. V. H., Miller, B., Pierce, M. L., Slemons, M., Varner, J., Wharton, R.(2015). Digital Atlanta: A collaborative approach to remapping Atlanta’s past. 2015 Digital Heritage.

Authors Page, M.C, Hurley, J.H., Collins, B., Glover, J.B., Bryant, R., Clark, E., Davis, M., Gue, R., Van Horn Melton, S.,  Miller, B.,  Pierce, M.L., Slemons, M., Varner, J. and Wharton. R. argue that a successful, interdisciplinary collaboration is possible to yield advances in digital historiography. The article provides examples of technology that is used by students along with historical context to help bring about about an innovative approach of remapping Atlanta’s past. The main goal of the “Digital Atlanta” article is about Georgia State and Emory Universities combined efforts throughout digital projects to address Atlanta’s archaeological built environments and past achievements through digital databases such as; geo-databases, spatial history tools and digital map collections. The target audience of this article are those to work and inhabit the city of Atlanta. This is known from the consistent use of the pronoun, “we”. This implies that the authors are communicating as a whole/community. City planners, historiographers, archaeologists, urban geographers, people in CIS professions, and students who study government, geology/geography, history, information systems, or modeling may find this work useful because this article collaborates varied and specific skills from numerous professions on the history of Atlanta along with the process of a digital remapping of the city. This cross section of skills provides reference for students and professionals as to how their abilities continue to contribute to a greater understanding of history and science.


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Working Argument Outtline

T: The purposeful street murals and art within downtown Atlanta discourages illegal activity and vandalism within the city

I. The purposeful street murals and art within downtown Atlanta discourages illegal     activity

A. How does street art discourage vandalism?

1. Broken Window Theory: “disorder breeds more disorder within a neighborhood. For example, if an abandoned building is left with broken windows, more windows will be broken. Litter left uncleaned encourages more littering. Vandalism left un-fixed generates more vandalism, leading to crime, because it sends a psychological message that no one is in charge, or no one is there to bring order. ” –

2. Street Art respected as a public piece/The line between street art and graffiti:
“artists who were adding an uncommissioned image that fitted into a street art aesthetic rather than a graffiti one reported that police officers and passers-by tended to assume that permission had been granted for the work.”

Avramidis, Konstantinos, and Tsilimpounidi, Myrto, eds. Graffiti and Street Art : Reading, Writing and Representing the City. Florence, US: Routledge, 2016. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 24 March 2017.
Copyright © 2016. Routledge. All rights reserved.

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Atlanta Underground

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Schindler Claim Paraphrased

Paragraph 2, Line 8.
“The lack of public-transit connections to areas north of the city makes it difficult for those who rely on transit—primarily the poor and people of color—to access job opportunities located in those suburbs”

Atlanta is largely interconnected through public transportation (MARTA), which expands through it’s major neighborhoods with train routes, and utilizing bus routes for everything in between. North metro-Atlanta, being a predominantly higher income, white suburban area, has been controversially opposed to the expansion of MARTA in these areas surrounding the city due to the possible influx of poor and people of color. Areas north of Sandy Springs have established a soft, architectural racism to exclude those of lesser wealth from accessing their neighborhoods as it is extremely difficult to travel North through public transportation alone.

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Down The Rabbit Hole: Little Five Points Personal Site Response

Photo by Candra Umunna

Atlanta’s Little Five Points is a metropolitan diamond in the rough. Amidst the bustling and ever so often labyrinth like streets of down town lies a colorful bubble of a neighborhood entirely unaware of the aesthetic of it’s surrounding city. 

Photo by Thomas Ronan

This ignorance produces a vivid, colorful, alternative art culture which has began to define the neighborhood. Focusing on color as I explored the neighborhood I found myself enthralled by the unique theme each storefront established for itself in competition with it’s neighbors. Reading a book by it’s cover here, unconventionally, was the best way to gauge the most interesting stores in the area:

Photograph by The Junkman’s Daughter

The epicenter of the neighborhood is fixated around Euclid Ave NE, featuring a vast variety of stores along both sidewalks selling everything from price gauged second hand clothes to Ethiopian cuisine. The main attractions curve around a corner as Euclid Ave meets Moreland Ave NE. Following Euclid Ave across the intersection brings you through a quaint neighborhood of Victorian styled houses which reflect the bold individuality of Little Five Points through their most defining feature: color.

Source: Flickr user megananne

The most important aspect of analyzing Little Fives Points built environment was understanding that its entire disregard for uniformity ironically created a consistent aesthetic within it. The countless nuanced differences between every store front, the colors, textures, fonts, and art used to define every building from it’s neighbors forged a unitary theme of alternative art across them all.

Photograph by Eric Cash

Photograph by Thomas Ronan

My favorite discovery within this hidden gem however, was by far the street art which adorned the side of any exposed building in the vicinity. Expansive murals acting as silent watchmen over back alley parking lots, powerful minimalist social commentary pieces, and even painted power boxes attached to poles along the sidewalk and every drop of  color in between are the true defining attributes of what makes Little Five Points the most unique neighborhood in Atlanta.

Photograph by Jenni Girtman


Photograph by Thomas Ronan

Photograph by Thomas Ronan

Little Five Points was molded by it’s vivid colors which reflect the people attracted to the area; individuals each with their own experiences and stories to share culminate here as varied as each hue within a rainbow celebrating our own uniqueness.

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“The Varsity: A Deconstruction” Question/Discussion

  1. What are the posts doing?
    All three posts within this site description series compile and build upon one another into one larger, overlapping analysis. Each post focuses on a specific aspect of the restaurant, ranging from the auditory environment of the establishment, to it’s raw architectural detail, and finally to the author’s interpretation of the restaurant’s suggestive undertones; outlying a call to a retreat of a racially divided past.
  2. What is the message of each post?
    The overlapping message between these post is generally unclear until the very last where a bold claim is made of The Varsity being racist, at least architecturally. The previous two supporting posts however illustrate the establishment as a bustling city restaurant with a fairly rigid service structure. Bold description of the interior elaborates on a uniform theme with repetition found throughout the restaurant, while the audio provided in a second post builds on this idea. Repeated, distinct greetings/phrases heard throughout the clip reinforce the idea of a fairly consistent and structured customer service.
  3. Who is the intended audience? How do you know?
    These pieces are clearly aimed towards other academics and researchers, seeking to find a greater significance in the details of environment rather than just the surface level. This conclusion is obvious due to the writing style general direction of the posts.
  4. How might the information be useful? To whom? Why?
    The information and conclusion provided by the author are useful to all types of people because they command the reader to analyze the details from a much different perspective than they are use to. Despite my disagreement with the general consensus of the piece, I do admire the greater message at hand because it is only achievable through rich scrutiny. The information is useful because it forces readers to apply the same concepts the author reached her conclusion with to the rest of their personal world.
  5. How does the author establish credibility?
    The author cites The Varsity’s home website to further back evidence of her research in the first post, yet aside from this no other sources are drawn upon. Credibility is established through the author’s extremely specific and vivid description of the restaurant which reflects the extent of her research and efforts.
  6. What could be change to improve the effectiveness of each post?
    Despite the posts have a very descriptive and well thought out air to them, I believe they could be significantly longer and even still more descriptive. It’s difficult to grasp the general layout of the restaurant (most likely due to it’s sheer size), or really understand the fundamental mood being created inside the Varsity based on these site descriptions. The author’s attention to detail is impressive, but an overlapping description of how these details tie in to the restaurant’s theme is missing.
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